The Treatment and Distribution Process
From the Village's Wells to Your Tap
Further explanation of the above image is provided in the tabs below.
The Village has three wells: one shallow well and two deep wells. Well #1, the shallow well, is used for emergency purposes only, and is unable to be treated outside of chlorination. The Village originally drilled a second shallow well in 1926, Well #2, with similar features as Well #1; however, due to lack of production and poor water quality it was capped in the mid-twentieth century and is no longer in use. Wells #3 and #4, the deep wells, can both be fully treated through the low- pressure reverse osmosis plant or chlorinated and sent to distribution in emergency situations.
*NOTE: The above water quality information is of RAW water not treated/finished water from the plant.
Once the raw water is pumped from the aquifer to the water treatment plant, it meets a booster pump on the lower level of the water plant that then pumps it upstairs to the AMIAD iron removal systems.
AMIAD Iron Removal Systems
The AMIAD iron removal system is a two-micron, automatic, self-cleaning particulate filter utilized as a pretreatment for the low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) system to remove insoluble iron from the water. This is the first application of these filters as pretreatment for LPRO in the United States. There is a separate AMIAD set for each deep well.
Following the initial pre-treatment of all of the raw water, a portion of the water from each well is bypassed and sent directly to the reservoir to allow for adjustments to taste and texture. Approximately 35% of the raw water from Well #3 and 45% of the raw water from Well #4 does not undergo any further treatment in the plant, outside of chlorination in the reservoir.
Cartridge Filter Vessels
The membrane cartridge filters protect the reverse osmosis system from any fugitive sand or silt that could potentially be pumped from the ground to the treatment plant. The vessels contain 70 one-micron membrane filters designed to capture any insoluble particulate that gets past the AMIAD iron removal system. The water treatment plant is equipped with three cartridge vessels. One vessel for each well and a redundant vessel that can be used for either well.
Low Pressure Reverse Osmosis Membrane System
Low Pressure Reverse Osmosis is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove larger particles from drinking water. Reverse osmosis can remove many types of molecules and ions from solutions, including bacteria, and is used in both industrial processes and the production of potable water. The water treatment plant is equipped with two reverse osmosis membrane skids- one for each well. Each skid is designed for the pressure and water flow/rate that are unique to each of the deep wells.
There are two effluents from the reverse osmosis skid: permeate and concentrate. The recovery rate for the RO skid is eighty percent, meaning that eighty percent of the water that leaves the skid is permeate and blended back with the bypass while twenty percent is concentrate, or waste, and sent to the clear well, waste water storage vessel, until it can be pumped to the sewer.
The Reservoir is the 500,000 gallon storage facility located at the water plant. The permeate created by the RO skids along with the raw water bypassed from the wells, meets in the reservoir. The reservoir is essentially a holding tank that allows for contact time and blending of the raw water, permeate, and chemical treatment. The reservoir is the last step in the treatment process before the finished water is pumped out to distribution.